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The knee is a modified hinge joint, a type of synovial joint, which is composed of three functional compartments: the patellofemoral articulation, consisting of the patella, or "kneecap", and the patellar groove on the front of the femur through which it slides; and the medial and lateral tibiofemoral articulations linking the femur, or thigh bone, with the tibia, the main bone of the lower leg. The joint is bathed in synovial fluid which is contained inside the synovial membrane called the joint capsule. The posterolateral corner of the knee is an area that has recently been the subject of renewed scrutiny and research.
It must be regarded as consisting of three articulations in one: two condyloid joints, one between each condyle of the femur and the corresponding meniscus and condyle of the tibia; and a third between the patella and the femur, partly arthrodial, but not completely so, since the articular surfaces are not mutually adapted to each other, so that the movement is not a simple gliding one.
This view of the construction of the knee-joint receives confirmation from the study of the articulation in some of the lower mammals, where, corresponding to these three subdivisions, three synovial cavities are sometimes found, either entirely distinct or only connected together by small communications.
When standing erect in the attitude of "attention," the weight of the body falls in front of a line carried across the centers of the knee-joints, and therefore tends to produce overextension of the articulations; this, however, is prevented by the tension of the anterior cruciate, oblique popliteal, and collateral ligaments.
The knee joint is a synovial joint that connects three bones; the femur, tibia and patella. It is a complex hinge joint composed of two articulations; the tibiofemoral joint and patellofemoral joint. The tibiofemoral joint is an articulation between the tibia and the femur, while the patellofemoral joint is an articulation between the patella and the femur.
The tibiofemoral joint is an articulation between the lateral and medial condyles of the distal end of the femur and the tibial plateaus, both of which are covered by a thick layer of hyaline cartilage.
The patellofemoral joint is a plane joint formed by the articulation of the patellar surface of femur (also known as the trochlear groove of femur) and the posterior surface of patella. The patellar surface of femur is a groove on the anterior side of the distal femur, which extends posteriorly into the intercondylar fossa.
The case records, clinical, radiographic, ultrasonographic and arthrocentesis findings from 25 cattle with septic or traumatic arthritis were reviewed. The total of 30 joints involved were: articulatio cubiti (elbow joint)-1, articulatio carpi (carpal joint)-10; articulatio genus (stifle joint)-4, articulatio tarsocruralis (tarsocrural joint)-8; articulatio metacarpo-/metatarsophalangea (metacarpo-/metatarsophalangeal joint -7. Ultrasonographic investigation was performed using 7.5 MHz linear and 5 MHz sector transducers. In eight cattle, a concurrent infection of periarticular tendon sheaths or hygroma was diagnosed. The distension of the joint cavities could be imaged in all cases. Assessing echogenicity, acoustic enhancement, ultrasonographic character of the exudate (liquid or clotted) and findings revealed by aspiration, arthrotomy or at necropsy, the synovial effusion was classified as: serous, fibrinous or fibrino-purulent. Diagnostic ultrasound provided a comprehensive preoperative diagnosis in septic and traumatic arthritis by imaging the accurate localization of soft-tissue swelling and the extent and consistency of joint effusion.
Der Innenmeniskus ist mit dem hinteren Anteil des medialen Kollateralbands verwachsen, woraus eine geringere Beweglichkeit bei Beugung und Streckung des Kniegelenks sowie eine erhöhte Verletzungsanfälligkeit resultiert. Der Außenmeniskus ist nicht mit dem extrakaps